There are 33 (thirty three) Scheduled Tribes in Manipur. They are Aimol, Anal, Angami, Chiru, Chothe, Gangte, Hmar, Kabui, Kacha Naga, Koirao, Koireng, Kom, Lamgang, Mizo, Lushai, Maram, Maring, Mao, Monsang, Moyon, Paite, Ralte, Sema, Simte, Suhte, Tangkhul, Thadou, Vaiphei, Zou, Poumei Naga, Tarao, Kharam and any kuki tribes. They lived mostly in the hill districts of Manipur. The Mao tribe is mostly concentrating in the Senapati District, the Tangkhuls in the Ukhrul District, the Kabuis in the Tamenglong District, the Anals and Maring in the Chandel District and Thadous and Kuki in the Churachandpur District. According to 2001 census, the Scheduled Tribes population was 7.41 lakhs (3.74 males and 3.67 females) as against 6.32 lakhs in 1991 census.

            There are 7 (seven) Scheduled Castes communities in Manipur. They are Loi, Yaithabi, Dhobi, Muchi or Rabidas, Namsudra, Patni and Sutradhar. The total Scheduled Castes population was 60 thousands (30 thousand males and 30 thousand females) in 2001 census as against 37 thousands in 1991 census showing an annual average growth rate of 4.83 percent during the decade 1991-2001.

         The scheduled caste and scheduled tribes in Manipur have a slightly different status but not as low as that of other states of India. However, due to poor inter village road connectivity with the district headquarters, communication with the people of interior part of the state is still lacking behind. On the other hand, in the hill districts it seems that every village has its own dialect.  

The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan provides flexibility to local units to develop a context specific intervention. Some interventions could be as follows: 

  •    Engagement of community organisers from SC/ST communities with a focus on schooling needs of children from  specific households.

  •    Special teaching support as per need.

  •    Ensuring sense of ownership of school committees by SC/ST communities.

  •    Training programmes for motivation for schooling.

  •    Setting up alternative schooling facilities in unserved habitations and for other out of school children.

  •    Using community teachers.

  •    Monitoring attendance and retention of children from weaker sections regularly.

  •    Providing context specific intervention in the form of a hostel, an incentive or a special facility as required.

  •     Involving community leaders in school management.

  •     The problems faced by children in the tribal areas are often different than that faced by children belonging to Scheduled Castes. Hence, special interventions may be needed for such regions. Some of the interventions, which can be considered, are:

                   a) Textbooks in mother tongue for children at the beginning of Primary education      where they do not understand regional language.

                   b)  Bridge Language Inventory for use of teachers.

                   c)   Special training for non-tribal teachers to work in tribal areas, including knowledge of tribal dialect. 

 The following activities have been taken up during the year 2006-07. 

  1. Pictorial charts have been developed in dialects of the following districts Senapati, Tamenglong, Chandel and under process for development at the state in recognized dialects.
  2. Enrolment drives in the interior villages of the districts concerned.
  3. Cultural programmes and ingenious games.
  4. Students rally and meeting of parents, teachers and members of VECs/WECs.
  5.  Participation in exhibition and interaction.
  6. Development of learning materials in dialect.
  7. Residential camp for SC/ST children.
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